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Keynote Lectures

Designing for Digital Wellbeing
Raian Ali, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar

Digital Phenotyping and Machine Learning in the Next Generation of Digital Health Technologies: Utilising Event Logging, Ecological Momentary Assessment & Machine Learning
Maurice Mulvenna, Ulster University, United Kingdom

The Transforming Power of Digitalization
Jan Gulliksen, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

 

Designing for Digital Wellbeing

Raian Ali
Hamad Bin Khalifa University
Qatar
 

Brief Bio
Raian joined Hamad Bin Khalifa University in Qatar, in Dec 2019 as a Professor in Information and Computing Technology. Before that he was a Professor in Computing at Bournemouth University in the UK that he joined in 2012 and founded and led the Engineering and Social Informatics Research Group (ESOTICS), focusing on the interrelation between technology and social requirements such as motivation, transparency and wellbeing. Raian leads multiple projects on the theme of making digital media and online gaming and gambling fairer through data-driven real-time transparency to empower users, support the conscious and regulated nature of their usage and increase digital wellness. He frequently provides consultancy and policy advice, nationally and internationally, around the theme. He published over 100 peer-reviewed papers and many are of interdisciplinary nature that embraces elements from software engineering, psychology and marketing. Raian is in the editorial board, organising and program committee of leading conferences and journals in the area of information systems and social informatics. His research is frequently featured in mainstream media and he works closely with a wide range of industries, charities and policymakers, internationally


Abstract
There is growing evidence that digital media usage can become problematic and ‘addictive’. Much research has focused on the role of user personal and social context in developing the problem, and little is known around the role of technology design in triggering and exacerbating the issue.
Digital media are equipped with powerful influence and persuasion techniques, which can increase users’ engagement and retention, but at the same time, can be questioned for hurting users’ wellness. Interestingly, technology offers an unprecedented opportunity for tools around assisting behavioural change and promoting a more regulated usage style. It can be designed to capture data around the (digital) behaviour and use them to derive interactive intervention techniques and issue them intelligently. The same approach can be thought for a range of human behaviours online and in real-life.
Challenges and risks in designing such tools are paramount, mainly due to the nature of subjects with problematic behaviour, e.g. denial, trivialisation of issue, the flight into health and relapse, and also due to the conflicting agendas and priorities in the production industry. This keynote will summarise the research around the topic and argue the case for Responsibility by Design concept in which tech companies are asked to empower users and their surrogate parties (social or technical) with data and tools to regulate their digital usage and be meaningfully informed about it and meet the emerging requirement of Digital Wellbeing. The speaker will present recent projects, conducted closely with charities and tech industry in UK and Europe, and the policy change achieved through them.



 

 

Digital Phenotyping and Machine Learning in the Next Generation of Digital Health Technologies: Utilising Event Logging, Ecological Momentary Assessment & Machine Learning

Maurice Mulvenna
Ulster University
United Kingdom
 

Brief Bio
Maurice Mulvenna, PhD., is Professor of Computer Science at Ulster University. His research areas include artificial intelligence, digital interventions for health & wellbeing, innovation and assistive technologies. Arising from his research, he has published over 350 papers and served on many program committees. He was co-chair of the 32nd British Human-Computer Interaction conference in 2018 and is co-chair of both the 31st European Cognitive Ergonomics Conference (ECCE-2019) and the 5th IEEE International Conference on Internet of People (IoP-2019) in 2019. He served for three years on UK Ofcom’s Advisory Committee on Older and Disabled People and currently serves on the editorial boards for several academic journals including the IET Journal of Engineering, Journal of Enabling Technologies and JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies. In 2014, he was elected as a Board Member of the International Society for Gerontechnology (ISG). Maurice is also a past winner of the European €100K IST Grand Prize and has won with colleagues the Best Innovation in Practice Award at the Dementia Care Awards. He has served as board member in Ulster University’s venturing company, Innovation Ulster Ltd from 2008 to 2016 and was awarded a Distinguished Enterprise Fellowship by the University in 2009. He is a senior member of both the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Association for Computing Machinery, and a chartered fellow of the British Computer Society.


Abstract
Products and services based on digital wellbeing technologies typically include mobile device apps as well as browser-based apps to a lesser extent, and can include telephony-based services, text-based chatbots and voice activated chatbots. Many of these digital products and services are simultaneously available across many channels in order to maximize availability for users. Digital wellbeing technologies offer useful methods for real time data capture of the interactions of users with the products and services. We can design what data are recorded, how and where it may be stored, and crucially, how it can be analyzed to reveal individual or collective usage patterns.

Digital phenotyping is the term given to the capturing and use of user log data from health and wellbeing technologies used in apps and cloud-based services. Digital phenotyping was originally proposed to correlate a person’s mental state by using their metadata and even sensor data on their smartphone.  In some cases, the data is physiological, for example pulse or movement-related, and it is collected automatically. In other cases, the data is actually metadata, for example, when a call is made and the call duration rather than the content of the call. Oftentimes, as would be expected from a personal device located on the body of the user, rich data pertaining to geo-location, social media use and interaction is gathered. Health and wellbeing-related, scientifically validated assessment scales may also generate digital phenotype data. Another form of digital phenotype data is Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), which originally made use of paper-diary techniques to enable people to record their observations or answers to specific questions and combined the ecological validity with the rigorous measurement techniques of psychometric research. EMA secures data about both behavioural and intrapsychic aspects of individuals' daily activities, and it obtains reports about the experience as it occurs, thereby minimizing the effects of reliance on memory and reconstruction which can often be impaired by hindsight bias or recall bias.

The use of digital phenotyping data and its analysis using machine learning and artificial intelligence is important since many national public health organizations are exploring how to use digital technologies such as health apps and cloud-based services for the self-management of diseases and thus logging user interactions allows for greater insight into user needs and provides ideas for improving these digital interventions, for example through enhanced personalization. Public health services benefit since the data can be automatically and hence cost-effectively collected. Such data may facilitate new ways for digital epidemiological analyses and provide data to inform health policies. If the public health organizations promote health apps and digital phenotyping analysis using machine learning and artificial intelligence is taken up by these organizations, then there is clear need for guidelines on the ethical application of these ‘democratized’ algorithms and techniques.

My keynote talk begins by reviewing the evolution of the use of technology to support peoples’ health and wellbeing, from telecare and telehealth through to personalised healthcare, the growth of the idea of ‘quantified self’ and ultimately, self-managed care. I then discuss the growing use of commercially available digital devices and software for selfcare, and the explosion in the data arising from their use in society. The opportunities for the application of machine learning to the data, including EMA data are explored and the implications are discussed, across such areas as big data for research study design, ethics, the ‘servitization’ of machine learning, bias, surveillance, and health and wellbeing services. In order to illustrate my work, I will draw upon case studies from digital health and wellbeing, including maternal mental health, crisis helplines and apps for people living with dementia.



 

 

The Transforming Power of Digitalization

Jan Gulliksen
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Sweden
 

Brief Bio
Jan Gulliksen is a professor in Human Computer Interaction and a Vice President for Digitalization at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. He is conducting research in usability, accessibility, user-centered systems design, digitalization and digital work environment problems. He has been serving as the chairman of the digital commission of Sweden between 2012-2016 for the minister of Digitalization at the Ministry of the Enterprise and is now a member of the Digitalization Council for the Ministry of Infrastructure. He has also been working as a Digital Champion of Sweden for the European Commission since 2012. He was also a member of the EU High Level Group on the impact of Horizon 2020 and preparing for Horizon Europe, the so called "Lamy group" and as such contributed to the report Fab-Lab-App.


Abstract
Digitalization is the societal change process in which new ICT-based solutions bring forward completely new ways of doing things, new businesses and new movements in the society. Digitalization also provides completely new ways of addressing issues related to life and work, health and care. But what does Digitalization mean and what effects may it have on our particular part of the society? How can we work with managing and leading digital transformation and how do we involve the people in this transformation process. This talk will provide interesting examples of digitalization, what effects it may have on work, on people on patients and relatives.




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